Industrial Symbiosis in Greece

Industrial Symbiosis in Greece

In this article a study was done to determine whether industrial symbiosis have spatial conditions and limits that restrict its potential. The paper analyzes studies of industrial symbioses in Greek industry. They use studies that include research in the archives of the Ministry of Economy, personal professional experience of the author in the field of environmental industrial controls, and through contacts and interviews with administrators of Industrial parks in Greece as well as executives of different businesses and companies in Greece. The total number of these case studies is said to be estimated at several thousand.

The analysis of the several thousand case studies, according to the document, “Suggests that the spatial allocation of companies at the IP scale generally prevails in the case of the reuse of industrial waste, while in the case of end-of-life-cycle products, larger spatial scales prevail”. Spacial allocation of an industry can also be effected by behavioral factors which is interesting. Some special factors include economic factors, environmental factors, and social factors. Economic factors include spacial allocation of waste sources, land acquisition cost, labor cost, and transportation cost. Environmental factors include physical characteristics of waste and waste compatibility. Social factors include conventional and behavioral factors.

The study concludes that industrial symbiosis does in fact have spatial conditions and limits that can restrict it. This study was definitely an interesting one and I wasn’t too sure what the results would be but had some ideas. Overallm I thought the study and research done was effective and can help places like Greece and other countries realize that industrial symbiosis has limitations to it based on these case studies.


Reading: eco-Innovation in Greece

The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) ranks Greece 25th overall in global ranking. According to them Greece has an average performance for air quality, fish stock, and emissions. Compared to other countries Greece shows potential in sectors of eco-innovation. However, this does not mean that the job is done or that they are developed to the full extent. In more recent years Greece has turned to finding more sustainable ways to do things. For example, power and electric was a big problem for Greece but they have shown progress in solar energy by installing solar panels in less inhabited places.

In more recent years Greece has also looked to the promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency but focusing on laws and policies that deal with these issues. According to the reading, “The aim of the country is to derive 20% of final energy consumption from RES by 2020 as well as to develop new waste management techniques promoted in the New Waste Management Plan (NWMP). Greece does not have any integrated policy framework to promote circular economy”. I found this quote very interesting because now in 2023 we see Greece making major leaps towards these policies and promoting a ,ore sustainable, circular economy.

A few questions I wonder, since this article was written prior to 2020, include how Covid affected this plan, did it help or hurt? I am also interested in seeing new numbers from this source. When meeting with the ACG representative I remember she said people in Greece never paid attention to sustainability much but now there are an increasing number of sustainable efforts within ACG and other places that she hopes will carry into Greek culture as they have in American culture.

I am also curious as to how the Action Plan for the Implementation of the National Strategy for Research, Technological Development, and Innovation for 2015-2021 has been successful or not because when I was in Greece they seemed to be pretty technologically advanced or at least similar to what I am used to in America. I wonder if that means that the action plan has been completed or if it has been altered to meet different wants, needs, etc. Overall, this article was very insightful and I enjoyed reading it.

Reading: Hydra Island towards Sustainability

Hydra was one of the amazing islands we were able to visit during our time in Greece. It is a small island off of Greece that does not have any cars on the island. However, the island was jam packed with tourists, restaurants, shops all after exiting the ferry. I did not think much of it because lots of places in the U.S. are also packed like this. However, Hydra as well as other islands do not have the infrastructure to provide for this. The water supply in Hydra as well as many parts of Greece is very scarce, there is not a lot of drinking water from tap as we may be used to in the United States. This reading highlights that Hydra Island may be in need of alternate sources of power and energy. Right ow the power source is fueled by power stations on the mainland but alternatives such as wind and solar would be very helpful. Solar farms could be placed into parts of the island that remain uninhabited and wind energy and generators could be also placed in these parts. The reading also mentions using and researching the possibility of wave energy. Right now Hydra Island does not have a good system for the waste management there. They bring waste to a different part of the island where it is set on fire to get rid of it. However, this puts hazardous chemicals into the air, the soil, and the water. There is also no sewage system on the island which is a very large problem.

10 years after the original article is published we see that some efforts have been made to fix these problems. The use of wind and solar power has become increasingly more popular. They have also put some restrictions on tourists coming to visit for a day in some islands, yet Hydra is not one of those yet. It may be interesting to consider that as a thought to help Hydra become more sustainable and now so over-used by tourists everyday.

Hydra was a beautiful island was probably one of my favorite places we visited. I would hope that it remains that beautiful forever and many others are able to visit.

Circular Economy

Reading: Circular Economy

In the article, “What is Circular Economy & How Does It Work” it states that the concept of a circular economy is to close the loop on linear patterns and this will reduce waste. There are 3 main keys to a circular economy including designing out waste and pollution, keeping products and materials in use, and regenerating living systems. In circular economies things can be recycled, giving everything an ability to be transformed multiple times. According to the reading it states, “Regeneration means products and services in a circular economy contribute to systems that renew or replenish themselves throughout various lifecycles and uses”. In a liner economy things begin as raw materials and end as landfill. However, if we donate things, reuse and recycle products, and even use chemical recyclers we create a circular economy and promote the idea of regeneration.

Currently we are dominated by linear economies, with a growing support and want for more circular economies around the world. As more support for sustainability actions occurs a circular economy is able to help promote sustainability and have a more positive effect on our environment. The article states that “Circular economy is a call to evaluate the environmental impact of products and their components from the initial concept stage through to end-use.”

There are many benefits to circular economies including consumer benefits, economy benefits, business benefits and environmental benefits. Consumer benefits include increasing disposable income and improve health. Economic benefits include boost economic growth and creating more jobs. Business benefits include lowering costs and engaging in long term customer interaction as well as loyalty. Finally, environmental benefits include decreasing carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse gas emissions and enhances value of land.


According to the reading circular economies will be overall beneficial to businesses as they create a new shift in their business strategy. According to the reading, “Circular business no longer focus on profit maximization”. Overall saying that instead of finding cheaper alternatives they world rather find more sustainable supply chains, factories, operations, etc. to boost a circular business. This could have great effects in countries such as Greece and would increase their ability to be sustainable.


This article was really interesting to read and definitely informed me more about circular economies and what it really means to be circular.

US Embassy/ACG Office of Sustainability Speaker

I really enjoyed listening and learning about sustainability within ACG and the US Embassy’s presentation. The ACG Office Sustainability speaker was very passionate about her work and very proud of her accomplishments. I found her enthusiasm to be quite inspiring because she really did enjoy talking about sustainability. I found it interesting how she said anyone in any major can join the club which is a great opportunity because sustainability has become so prominent in every industry today. Having the chance to practice more sustainable measures within the university increases the knowledge of other students who may want to do the same but do not necessarily know where to start. I also found her point that for sustainability to pick up a cultural shift also needs to occur. In the United States she has long practiced the use of reusable water bottles and almost every person I see walking around the College of Charleston campus uses the reusable water bottles. However, bottled water here is more popular. The American College of Greece speaker said that they gave away some free reusable water bottles and the more people that began to use them the more people that wanted them. However, ACG forgot about the fact that if you want more people to use the water bottles, you need water refill stations. Since the introduction of the stations, reusable water bottles are very popular on the campus. 

My favorite class so far was listening to the United States Embassies presentation. I found it fascinating learning about the job of being a diplomat, a career I had never thought about before. The speaker seemed very passionate about her work and I found it kind of funny how much her job can range in a day from negotiating fried chicken to working with the president of the United States. I also felt as though her presentation was genuine and it seemed like she actually enjoyed her work and what she does everyday. I also thought how cool it is that every few years she can change to a different country if she would like and begin new work there. However, it does seem a little scary to uproot yourself and not even know where you may live next. Like she explained she was in Thailand at first, a place very different in infrastructure than Greece. 

Overall, I really enjoyed both presentations and I though they were very informative, inspiring, and interesting!

Quiz 2 Abby Jones

In the last 3 days I have increased my knowledge of sustainability and green supply chain management by a lot. This is my first supply chain class and prior to this the only real information I had about supply chain was how important of a field it is. Over the past few days I have been able to really understand the definition and how sustainability is such an important aspect to it. I had never heard the meaning of a closed-loop supply chain or the differences between the cradle-to-grave and cradle-to-cradle approaches.

The class where the American College of Greece professor gave us a presentation on their efforts of increasing sustainability really opened my eyes to how countries, outside of the U.S., are adjusting to become more sustainable.

I found it very interesting that their non-profit had only been developed in recent years and how they are able to market sustainability to their students. I also had found the story of the introduction of reusable water bottled without refill stations to be interesting because we have had those for so long in schools in the U.S.

Before this class I had never heard of cradle-to-cradle certification and upon completing the cradle-to-cradle certification project I did not know that companies could be certified in this. I chose a company that I had no idea made these sustainable efforts and actually ended up doing a ton of research on their accomplishments throughout the world. We also discussed green-washing where companies claim to be environmentally friendly but may not be actually be sustainable and instead are just claiming false information.

Today’s presentation from the United States Embassy was probably my favorite to learn about within these past few days. I had no prior knowledge as to what a diplomat was before they came in

to talk to us. I find it quite fascinating that these government jobs can range from negotiating deals on fried chicken to dealing with the President of the United States. Today especially opened my eyes to job opportunities that I had deemed impossible for me to be interested in. However, the United States Embassies presentation was very informative and I left with a new point of view on this job. I found it especially interesting that diplomats get assigned to new countries every few years and never really know where they might end up next.

Overall, these past few days have increased my knowledge and interest in sustainability and green supply chain management.